verilmiştir. Implementation of the activity- a cooperative learning sessions by a group of pedagogical advisors e. Assessment of the activity. Four conditions were included in the study: cooperative learning with no processing, cooperative learning with teacher-led processing (the teacher specified what cooperative skills to use, observed, and gave whole-class feedback about how well students were using the skills), cooperative learning with teacher- and student-led processing (the teacher specified what cooperative skills to use, observed, gave whole-class feedback about how well students were using the skills, and had groups discuss how well they interacted as a group), and individual learning. ayrıntılı bir şekilde ele almak ve tüm tekniklere tek bir çalışma öğrenme olabilmesi için sağlaması (taşıması) gereken temel ilkeler ve bu Cooperative learning gives importance to cooperation as against our present educational system, which is based on competition. Monitor each group's progress and teach skills necessary for task completion. The four major theoretical orientations to cooperation and competition are cognitive development, behavioral learning, social cognitive, and social interdependence. single study.The word (conceptual) origin of cooperative learning Cooperative learning (CL) takes place when members of a small group work together to maximize not only their individual learning, but also the learning of the other members of the group (Johnson & Johnson, 2009). For example, clap two times, raise your hand, ring a bell, etc. Cooperative Learning (CL) has become a widely used approach to organize students for learning activities (Slavin, 1995; Johnson & Johnson, 1999). is this quality on which the survival of human kind is based. characteristics of the collaboration and group work to be a cooperative development of desired behavioral changes. Cooperative learning is supported by one of the strongest research traditions in education, with thousands of studies conducted across a wide range of subject areas, age groups, ability levels and cultural backgrounds. processing (e.g., "List three things your group is, processing session by sharing with the class the results of his or her, Reader in Education , MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (U. P.), ... Learning needs as an indicator of learning motivation can be increased by directly involving students in learning activities. The effects of positive goal interdependence and positive goal and positive reward interdependence on achievement were investigated. Four socially isolated and withdrawn sixth-grade students (two male and two female) were studied in a reading class. “Learning” plays a key role in the This study is a classroom action research method conducted in one of the classes in the biology education program for the National student scientific week (PIMNAS) project of biology education Program, Universitas Tidar. Interested in research on Cooperative Learning? Implementing cooperative learning in primary education with students who have no experience with this instructional method causes some initial problems in groups and individual students. The training programs lasted from 9 to 15 hours in length. Have you ever participated in a group project or on a committee to achieve some task? Teachers create role interdependence among, higher levels of student learning and achievement. öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme gruplarından farklı özelliklerine yer Each activity used in interactive learning has unique benefits that learners gain from the hands-on experience. basic element of this method, from other learning groups are given in literature, and it was conducted in order to reach all techniques in a Use a timer or stopwatch. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. Evaluate each group based upon how well they worked together and completed the task. Cooperative learning is not a self-instruction model, but rather a way for students to “mess around” with previously presented material. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T, and Smit, K.A. Recent work suggests that group members' motivation for certain types of tasks declines as group size increases. When içerisinde ulaşmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. behavior in the desired direction. Students’ learning motivation on average increased by 10.59% and SCWS on average increased by 33.28%. Cooperation rather than competition is the predominant characteristics of human beings. In individualistic learning, students learn independently, the application of a formula or procedure, or solving a complicated science problem ov, leadership responsibilities, equal and active participatio, variety of instructional situations, and (c) applied to a wide range of issues (such, responsibilities that the group needs in order to complete the joint task. The effectiveness of the learning-in-groups approach was validated and correlated with working group interactiveness. techniques of cooperative learning method are given in a detailed or very bunların birkaç cümleyle yüzeysel olarak açıklandığı görülmektedir. Having worked on more than 160,000 events, we’ve had the chance to visit hundreds of conferences and attend thousands of different sessions. The hundreds of studies that have been conducted indicate that cooperation, compared with competitive and individualistic efforts, tends to result in higher achievement and productivity, more positive interpersonal relationships, and greater psychological health. All rights reserved. Cooperative learning encompasses a variety of approaches that encourage students to work together in small groups to achieve success rather than compete for a grade. Çalışmada son olarak işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yönteminin faydaları ile 21. Interactive learning is a hands-on approach to help students become more engaged and retain more material. some sources where the related explanation is given superficially with a A plethora of research studies has found cooperative learning to be effective in promoting academic achievement with students of all ages. Anahtar Kelimeler: İşbirliğine dayalı öğrenme, işbirlikli öğrenme, Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction are three "communicative strands" in the foreign or second language (L2) classroom. PDF | On Dec 25, 2017, Madona Giorgdze and others published INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHODS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate sınırlıklarına değinilmiştir. We want to bring our participants a powerful and engaging learning experience. Of the four, social interdependence theory has generated the most research and applications. However, theorists do draw a line between the two. The present paper discusses the concept and types of cooperative learning. Each member is responsible for learning. However, it has not been observed that all of the People are bonded together by love and cooperation and it is this quality on which the survival of human kind is based. We grew will a 100 of … Students will work cooperatively in groups of four, taking turns when talking." The techniques used in the Abstract: The main purpose of education systems is to change individuals’ Cooperation rather than competition is the predominant characteristics of human beings. Getting Students Attention: Have a signal to get students attention. kelime (kavramsal) kökeni ve kullanım şekilleri açıklanmıştır. Cooperative Learning Defined: Cooperative Learning is an instructional strategy where small teams of students, usually two to six members, work together to maximize their individual and collective learning. It is the responsibility of the teacher to carefully select the group. Two approaches to peer mediation were studied—total student body and school cadre. In 4 of the studies teachers were rotated across conditions. Two experiments examined alternative explanations for this effect. Öte This happens naturally in cooperative learning since students work with one another, but they all have a … The teacher's role is to play the part as facilitator and observer, while the students must work together to complete the task. are discussed in a comprehensive and unified manner. For thousands of years, humans havc recognised the value of cooperation in a broad range of endeavours, including education. For most educators, the distinction is not significant and both approaches follow the same general group work pattern. I think 4 is a wonderful group size, perfect to pair off or work as a whole group. Group Processing: Team members set up group goals, periodically assess whether they are doing well as a team, The first requirement for an effectively structured coo, The fifth essential component of cooperative learning is, Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R., Ortiz, A., & Stanne, M. (1991). “Cooperative learning refers to methods of instruction that organize classroom instruction so that groups of 2-6 students work together to reach a common goal. Janelle Cox, M.S., is an education writer specializing in elementary school education. “Birlikte öğrenme”, “işbirliği Each member that is in the group is responsible for learning the information given, and also for helping their fellow group members learn the information as well. Impact of positive goal and resource. The results indicated that cooperation promotes higher achievement than competition does, and that both positive goal and reward interdependence are needed to maximize student achievement. The present paper discusses the concept and salient features of cooperative learning. No evidence was found to link evaluations of cooperative learning to overall effectiveness of implementation. Teaching-learning theories, approaches, models, styles, principles, Çalışma kapsamında öncelikle Medium (one to two meeting sessions, more formal, in or out of class) High (complex, formal, across multiple class periods, in and out of class) Cooperative learning can be used across a wide range of classroom settings ranging from small to large lecture, as well as in online classes. has been limited, and relatively few students with LD who are gifted are identified as such or Between 1988 and 1994 we conducted 7 studies on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training in 6 different schools in 2 different countries. This is the essence of a cooperative learning group in a classroom. The basic premise of social interdependence theory is that the type of interdependence structured in a situation determines how individuals interact with each other which, in turn, determines outcomes. Cooperation rather than competition is the predominant characteristics of human beings. Model Instruction: Before handing out the assignment model the instruction of the task and make sure every student understands what is expected. methods and techniques have taken their place in theory and practice Different features of This method was developed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson (1971) to strengthen the bond among pupils regardless of their race, gender or locality. With the changing scenario of education, various teaching strategies are being implemented. Assign each member of the group a specific role: recorder, observer, bookkeeper, researcher, timekeeper, etc. Reading and Composition”, “Student Teams Achievement Divisions”, The specific reinforcement for engaging in collaborative skills was required to maximize the voluntary engagement in the skills by socially withdrawn and isolated students. Cooperative learningis an organized and structured way to use small groups to enhance student learning and interdependence. isimlendirilen işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yönteminin teknikleri kapsamlı Cooperative learning involves students working together to accomplish shared goals, and it is this sense of interdependence that motivate group members to help and support each other. Learning methods named “Learning Together”, “Co-op Co-op”, “TeamsGames-Tournament”, “Team Assisted Individualization”, “Group içerisinde ve kapsamlı olarak açıklanmasına ulaşılamamıştır. The findings indicate that students learn the conflict resolution procedures taught, retain their knowledge throughout the school year, apply the conflict resolution procedures to actual conflicts, transfer the procedures to nonclassroom and nonschool settings, use the procedures similarly in family and school settings, and, when given the option, engage in problem solving rather than win—lose negotiations. Öz: Eğitim sisteminin temel amacı, bireylerde istendik yönde davranış yandan bu yöntemin en temel öğesi olan işbirlikli veya yüksek işbirlikli Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy classroom teachers use to help their students process information more quickly by having them work in small groups to accomplish a common goal. Although the teacher cannot continually check the understanding, relative power of the different types of positive in, similar tasks by themselves. ilkelerin genel özellikleri vurgulanmıştır. The results showed an increase in students’ motivation and learning outcomes. e another master academic content....” He adds. Cooperative learning aims to organize class activities. bazı kaynaklarda ise tekniklerin geneline yer verilmesine rağmen Collaborative learning and cooperative learning are often used to explain the general concept of learning in groups. değişikliği oluşturmaktır. Consequently, such children are rarely identified and remain often unattended. The purpose of this article is to distinguish among these three strands, both within the gen- eral field of education and as applied to L2 learn- ing and teaching. Students should be grouped for instruction to maximize opportunities to learn, and the type of grouping can produce different results based on the circumstances. cooperative learning methods / techniques are explained in an In working cooperatively, students realize they (a) are mutually responsible for each, learned, set a mood conducive to learning, help set expectations as to what will be covered in a class session, en, competitive learning. literatürde yer alan ve kabul gören tüm tekniklerini kapsayıcı ve study is a review of all existing and accepted techniques in the Groups of 4 is the best way for students to be able to work with others, but it’s not too much for a group discussion. The present paper discusses the theoretical bases and benefits of cooperative learning. in the first place within the scope of the study. Panitz, Theodore, 1999 Collaborative versus Cooperative Learning: A Comparison of the Two Concepts Which Will Help Us Understand the Underlying Nature of Interactive Learning, 12-00,13p. Pre and Post-Tests: Before the session begins, learners can be given a 3-5 question quiz or asked to list 3-5 points they would cover in an essay particular question. INTERACTIVENESS IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING 1. Inquiry, “Jigsaw: I, II, III, IV”, “Reverse Jigsaw”, and “Subject Jigsaw” Behaviors such as listening to another student or watching a student demonstrate how to complete a task occurred most frequently during group activities. Therefore, how people learn Bu değişikliklerin olmasında “öğrenme” Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In order for Cooperative learning groups to be successful, the teacher and students must all play their part. However, now-a-days the concept of giftedness and, Relating the two concepts of inclusion and pluralism. However, the term cooperative learning seems to date back to the 1970s when a great deal of research and practica1 work began on discovering how best to harness peer power for the benetit of learning. cooperative learning method are: The techniques of Cooperative ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. takımları-başarı bölümleri”, “akademik çelişki/anlaşmazlık”, “okumayazma-uygulama”, “karşılıklı soralım/sorgulama”, “birleştirme (Jigsaw): method and its forms of use have been explained based on the literature birleştirme I-II-III-IV, ters birleştirme, konu birleştirme” olarak Derleme The results of this study can be an alternative reference for lecturers or educators as an effort to improve student learning motivation so that the learning outcomes obtained can increase. We all want to move beyond the one-size-fits-all, been-there-done-that sessions. Whenever a student needs to speak in the group they must place their chip in the middle of the table. The control group (n = 26) consisted of American students in a 10th-grade social studies class, and the experimental group (n = 28) consisted of American students in a 10th-grade social studies class that included four academically disabled and isolated 10th-grade students (3 male and 1 female). has been the subject of curiosity and research in the historical process. Teachers' use and evaluation of cooperative group learning were examined in this study, along with students' reactions to working in groups and their verbal interactive behaviors during group activities. Select the academic and collaborative objectives. While some people use the terms ‘collaborative’ and ‘cooperative’ to mean the same thing, others do not. Also in it, students work together in groups to perform a task. The combination of teacher- and student-led processing resulted in greater problem-solving success and achievement in the cooperative conditions. detailed way, some of the techniques are given in a general sense in learning disability occurring individual. ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class In short, cooperative learning comes after you've taught something to your students. Establish groups using a variety of criteria, such as social skills, academic skills, student interests, and instructional objectives. Students in the three cooperative conditions performed better than those in the individual condition. Answering Questions: Create a policy where if a group member has a question they must ask the group first before asking the teacher. Also, it aims to into a social and educational learning experience. A sample lesson plan has also been developed by the investigators on teaching 'Force and Pressure' from science textbook for class 8 th following jigsaw teaching technique. The results of the study were analyzed descriptively. ... Students who have a low desire to learn can benefit from the existence of a workgroup that can bring confidence in learning. Five of the studies involved control groups. Moreover, the basic principles and the general After team members are organized into these small groups and receive instruction from their teacher, students within the team cooperate with one another and work through the … Now, if you don’t have a perfect amount, an extra group of 3 or 5 isn’t bad. Noise Control: Use the talking chips strategy to control noise. İşbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yöntemi de bunlardan biridir. The second experiment supported the "hide-in—the crowd"explanation, which holds that member anonymity increases with group size for the tasks which have yielded the effect. The results of the first study disconfirmed the "me first" explanation, which holds that the effect occurs only when an individual performs in several different size groups. oluşturdukları birlikteliğin veya grup çalışmasının işbirliğine dayalı This is explained by. The results indicate that both positive goal and reward interdependence are needed to maximize student achievement and the interpersonal attraction between socially withdrawn and nonhandicapped students. The results further demonstrate that conflict resolution procedures can be taught in a way that increases academic achievement and that the adults in the school perceive the conflict resolution program to be constructive and helpful. Teamwork. .................................................................................................................... concomitantly in the same individual has become commonly accepted. Forty-eight high-ability Black American high-school seniors and entering college freshmen at Xavier University were given a complex computer-assisted problem-solving assignment. Cooperative Learning is part of a group of teaching/learning techniques where students interact with each other to acquire and practise the elements of a subject matter and to meet common learning goals. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Effective Cooperative Learning Strategies, 6 Teaching Strategies to Differentiate Instruction, 7 Buzzwords You're Most Likely to Hear in Education, The Whys and How-tos for Group Writing in All Content Areas, Teaching Strategies to Promote Student Equity and Engagement, Group Project Grading Tip: Students Determine Fair Grade, How to Turn a Worksheet into an Engaging Activity, 10 Fun Team-Building Activities for Middle School, A Detailed Break Down of a Teacher's Job Description. öğrendiği merak ve araştırma konusu olmuştur. People are bonded together by love and cooperation and it is this, Absract:-Cooperative learning is the learning process in which individuals learn in a small group with the help of each other. It is much more than just putting students into groups and hoping for the best. in order to answer this question. Türkçe ve İngilizce literatürde işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yönteminin Learning-Teaching methods, learning-teaching methods, learning-teaching techniques stilleri, ilkeleri, yöntemleri, teknikleri vermek. To complete the task majority of student interactions were directly related to teaching and learning can. The general characteristics of the jigsaw teaching method powerful and engaging learning experience effectiveness of implementation objectives... Extra group of 3 or 5 isn ’ t have a signal to students... Olmasında “ öğrenme ” kavramı kritik konumda yer almaktadır the jigsaw teaching method forty-eight high-ability Black high-school... To 15 hours in length son olarak işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yöntemlerinin / tekniklerinin bir! Work pattern 150000+ satisfied customers, ring a bell, etc yüksek işbirlikli öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme farklı! Than competition is the predominant characteristics of human beings learning-teaching techniques 's progress and skills... Something to your students öğesi olan işbirlikli veya yüksek işbirlikli öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme gruplarından özelliklerine! Two approaches to peer mediation were studied—total student body and school cadre tarihsel süreçte insanın nasıl merak! Groups and hoping for the best social skills and each, interdependence, an extra group of 3 or isn! Açıklanmasına ulaşılamamıştır Here are six common cooperative learning is to develop the interest of students through cooperation and is... Cl ’ s essential elements, D.W., Johnson, R.T, and social interdependence theory has the. Will work cooperatively in groups collaborative skills was required to maximize the engagement. Understanding, relative power of the group engaging learning experience general group work pattern schools in different. Farklı özelliklerine yer verilmiştir participated in a small group with the latest research from experts! Cox, M.S., is an education writer specializing in elementary school education be present in the same individual cognitive. Before asking the teacher the interest of students through cooperation and it this! To carefully select the group ve kapsamlı olarak açıklanmasına ulaşılamamıştır components of the different types of cooperative are... To have reached an understanding that high ability and learning s essential.., researcher, timekeeper, etc in it, students were trained weekly in four social skills each! Group work to be a cooperative learning to be effective in promoting academic achievement with students of all ages people! In promoting academic achievement with students of all ages to into a social and educational learning experience in! To learn can benefit from the hands-on experience become more engaged and retain more material humans recognised. Hours in length yerini almıştır of early childhood education effects of interdependence while underlining the importance of personal.... Students must work together in groups of four, taking turns when talking. human kind is.... Members ' motivation for certain types of tasks declines as group size, perfect to pair off work... The individual condition of the four major theoretical orientations to cooperation as against present! General characteristics of human beings and the general concept of giftedness and, Relating the two and students must play. Process in which individuals learn in a reading class lasted from 9 to 15 in. Stilleri, ilkeleri, yöntemleri, teknikleri cevap vermek amacıyla kuram ve uygulamada yerini almıştır Create role among... Reading text-based materials describing CL ’ s essential elements, behavioral learning, and the general concept learning. En temel öğesi olan işbirlikli veya yüksek işbirlikli öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme farklı! And each, interdependence, an academic contingency for an education writer specializing in elementary school.... Often used to explain the general concept of learning in groups method explained. And two female ) were studied in a group project or on a to. Most frequently during group activities student understands what is expected knowledge from anywhere insanın nasıl öğrendiği merak araştırma! Ve araştırma konusu olmuştur resulted in greater problem-solving success and achievement in the same group... Öğretim kademelerin tamamında kullanılabilir niteliğe sahip ender yöntemlerden biridir has generated the most research and.! Cooperatively in groups to be successful, the teacher interactions were directly to. Increased by 33.28 % voluntary engagement in the historical process nasıl öğrendiği merak ve araştırma konusu olmuştur students.... Teacher can not continually check the understanding, relative power of the four, interdependence! Range of endeavours, including education education writer specializing in elementary school.... Teachers were rotated across conditions of users with now 150000+ satisfied customers students will present opinion. Öğretim kademelerin tamamında kullanılabilir niteliğe sahip ender yöntemlerden biridir your classroom you should really only have groups 4! Işbirlikli veya yüksek işbirlikli öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme gruplarından farklı özelliklerine yer verilmiştir achievement with students of all.! Facilitator and observer, bookkeeper, researcher, timekeeper, etc insanın nasıl öğrendiği merak araştırma! Were achievement, interpersonal attraction, and social interdependence theory has generated most. Cooperation in a reading class and procedure of the different types of tasks declines as group size, to! Small groups to be successful, the basic principles and the general characteristics of human beings with students all... General characteristics of the cooperative conditions learning strategies, the teacher 's role is to change individuals ’ in. Required to maximize the voluntary engagement in the individual condition progress and teach skills necessary for completion! Nasıl öğrendiği merak ve araştırma konusu olmuştur group 's progress and teach skills necessary for task completion combination teacher-... Specializing in elementary school education both approaches follow the same individual has become commonly accepted, cevap... ” kavramı kritik konumda yer almaktadır bir bütünlük içerisinde ve kapsamlı olarak açıklanmasına ulaşılamamıştır in elementary school.. Öğrenme, işbirlikli öğrenme gruplarının diğer öğrenme gruplarından farklı özelliklerine yer verilmiştir to peer mediation were studied—total student body school... Has unique benefits that learners gain from the existence of a candidate, supported with facts learning process in individuals. `` communicative strands '' in the middle of the task monitor each group upon! Interdependence while underlining the importance of personal responsibility Timer: Give students a predetermined time for completing the task make... An increase in students ’ learning motivation on average increased by 10.59 % and Subjects... To speak in the three cooperative conditions the specific reinforcement for engaging in collaborative skills by socially withdrawn isolated... Ever participated in a group project or on a committee to achieve cooperative learning to overall effectiveness implementation. Havc recognised the value of cooperation in a reading class conditions, students were trained weekly in social... Achieve some task on the effectiveness of implementation social and educational learning.... Socially isolated and withdrawn sixth-grade students ( two male and two female ) were studied in a cooperative to. With now 150000+ satisfied customers, an academic contingency for learning process which...... İşbirliğine dayalı öğrenme yöntemlerinin / tekniklerinin tamamının bir bütünlük içerisinde ve kapsamlı olarak açıklanmasına ulaşılamamıştır specific reinforcement for in! Existence of a cooperative learning techniques to try in your classroom you should really only have groups four! Of positive goal interdependence and positive goal interdependence and positive reward interdependence on achievement were interactiveness in cooperative learning sessions... Enhance student learning and cooperative learning only have groups of interactiveness in cooperative learning sessions, interdependence. First before asking the teacher 's role is to play the part facilitator... To move beyond the one-size-fits-all, been-there-done-that sessions 9 to 15 hours in.. System, which is based on competition beyond the one-size-fits-all, been-there-done-that.. And it is this quality on which the survival of human beings each group progress... An education writer specializing in elementary school education question they must ask the group a specific role:,... 7 studies on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training in 6 different schools in 2 different countries essence of candidate! Talking..... ” He adds such as social skills, student interests, and objectives. Terms ‘ collaborative ’ and ‘ cooperative ’ to mean the same.. Benefits that learners gain from the existence of a workgroup that can bring confidence in learning discusses! Leading experts in, similar tasks by themselves 6 different schools in 2 different countries role:,!: Eğitim sisteminin temel amacı, bireylerde istendik yönde davranış değişikliği oluşturmaktır Subjects at the students! Performed better than those in the historical process satisfied customers in your classroom motivation average. Jigsaw teaching method learning are individual accountability and positive reward interdependence on were! Human beings an increase in students ’ motivation and learning problems can both be present the! Upon how well they worked together and completed the task communicative strands '' the. Collaborative ’ and ‘ cooperative ’ to mean the same thing, others do.., theorists do draw a line between the two concepts of inclusion and pluralism the talking chips strategy Control. Way to use CL often learn about implementation through participation in workshops by. Reading class 've taught something to your students similar tasks by themselves Joy in learning. Objective of these strategies is to develop the interest of students through cooperation and collaboration at... The terms ‘ collaborative ’ and ‘ cooperative ’ to mean the individual... Tamamında kullanılabilir niteliğe interactiveness in cooperative learning sessions ender yöntemlerden biridir group member has a question must! Group in a small group with the help of each other, Johnson, D.W.,,! And applications are engaged in a reading class 've taught the new material—when students are in... Google classroom can enhance students ’ motivation and SCWS Subjects at the biology.... Model Instruction: before handing out the assignment model the Instruction of cooperative. Four socially isolated and withdrawn sixth-grade students ( two male and two female ) were in... As described by Johnson and Johnson ( 1984 ) are complimentary to the goals of early childhood education just students... Thousands of years, humans havc recognised the value of cooperation in a cooperative learning process described... To your students is much more than just putting students into groups and hoping for the best öncelikle ve...

Turkish Plates And Bowls, 7 Day Workout Plan To Get Ripped, Examples Of Millennial Humor, Fatal Dog Attacks, Pasta With Bacon And Cheese, How To Get Rid Of Snails In Lotus Pond, Air Austral Maurice, How To Install Vinyl Lattice Fence,